Rapid diagnostics and surveillance for drug-resistant microbes can help protect vulnerable patients.

There are over 1 million patients in the United States each year with a complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) and 50% of these patients are at risk for harboring an antimicrobial resistant organism. These infections are difficult to treat due to a 35% rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones and a 14% extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) rate, which has increased by over 30% annually between 2010 and 2014.1,2

Patients with cUTI are typically: 2,3

  • Those with frequent hospital re-admissions.
  • Older adults, generally from nursing homes.
  • Those who have received antimicrobial therapy recently.
  • Experiencing an intrinsic and extrinsic disorder of the kidney, renal pelvis, and urethra.
  • Those having an extended stay in a medical facility, especially if in the ICU.

 

The cost to treat cUTIs can range from $25,000 to $60,000 per patient3, and while carbapenems or restricted antibiotics are required to treat those caused by ESBLs, the use of these antibiotics to treat infections susceptible to third generation cephalosporins (non-ESBLs) comes at the devastating additional cost of driving resistance to our last-resort antibiotics.  Current laboratory methodology requires 48 -72 hours to determine the correct antibiotic treatment but OpGen is developing Acuitas Lighthouse and Acuitas AMR Gene Panel to help solve the cUTI treatment dilemma in less than 3 hours.

Other patients—like those with organ transplants, bone marrow transplants, sepsis, diabetes, or cancer—are also at high risk and are especially susceptible to contracting and transmitting a drug-resistant infection in a healthcare setting.

  • Patients with recent bone marrow transplants are particularly at risk for drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. If colonization leads to a clinical disease state, mortality rate approaches 50%.4,5,6
  • Long-term acute care facilities (LTAC), rehab units, and skilled nursing facilities have a nine times higher rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae compared to acute care centers. 7 Patients admitted into hospitals from those facilities can spread the infection to other patients.
  • Diabetes mellitus has been shown to be an independent predictor of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) clinical infections. Diabetics have an almost 3 times higher chance of infection if they are CRE colonized. 8

 

1 Diagnostic Microbiology and Infection Disease. 85(2016) 459-465
2 CDC, HICPAC
3 Company sponsored market research
4 Schwaber MJ, Carmeli Y. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: a potential threat. JAMA 2008; 300: 2911–2913. | Article | PubMed |
5 Yu VL, Hansen DS, Ko WC, Sagnimeni A, Klugman KP, von Gottberg A et al. Virulence characteristics of Klebsiella and clinical manifestations of K.pneumoniae bloodstream infections. Emerg Infect Dis 2007; 13: 986–993. | PubMed | ISI
6 S. Shoham, K. Marr Bacterial infections after bone marrow transplant. Cancer Therapy Advisor (2009)
7 Lin et al. The Importance of Long-term Acute Care Hospitals in the Regional Epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase– Producing Enterobacteriaceae. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2013;57(9):1246–52
8 Schechner, V. et al. Asymptomatic rectal carriage of blaKPC producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: who is prone to become clinically infected? Clinical Microbiology and Infection, Volume 19, Issue 5, 451 – 456